# Blog

Biostatistics

### What is a p-value?

P-values show how large the probability is to obtain the observed test results assuming the null hypothesis is correct. Or in other words, how likely

Biostatistics

### What is a significance test?

A test of significance consists of four steps. First, the null and alternative hypothesis must be stated. Second, the test must be chosen appropriately, and

Biostatistics

### What are one-sided and two-sided tests?

When applying a statistical test, there are always two hypotheses as a basis. The null hypothesis describes the non-favorable scenario, where the investigational product would

Biostatistics

### What is the error of the first and second kind?

In every clinical trial, statistics play a very important part. Because based on the statistical analysis, decisions are made about new therapies, medicaments, or medical

Biostatistics

### What is the null and alternative hypothesis?

When conducting a clinical trial one of the most important aspects is to define the objective of a study and to decide on what the

Biostatistics

### What is a confidence interval?

When it is about the precision of a test result, confidence intervals are a more useful measure than p-values, which only reflect the statistical significance. Confidence intervals provide additional information about how large the effect could be, so answering the question how the clinical relevance for the finding is.

Biostatistics

### What is an estimator?

An example for a point estimator is the arithmetic mean when trying to find the mean of a population. A point estimator is used to

Biostatistics

### What is the uniform distribution? (approx. 5 min.)

The uniform distribution is probably the simplest of all probability distributions. It is used for data, where all outcomes within a predefined interval have the

Biostatistics

### What is the Poisson distribution?

The Poisson distribution is modelling the number of events within a defined time interval or area. For example, counting variables such as the recruitment for

Biostatistics

### What is the binominal distribution?

If an outcome variable that can be specified in two response possibilities only, data can be analyzed as binary based on a binomial distribution, where each observation of a defined number of “experiments” represents one of the two outcomes, and the probability of success is the same for each observation.
In this part of our blog series accompanying our #video #series “5 Minutes Statistics for Clinical Trials” we explain what a #binomial #distribution reflects and what are its characteristics.