What is the normal distribution?

The normal distribution or Gauß distribution is called normal, as it is seen as the ideal case of a distribution. It is showing the distribution


What is the correlation coefficient?

The correlation coefficient (r) is a specific measure that quantifies the strength of a linear statistical relationship between two variables, as well as its direction.


Graphical presentation of data

In clinical studies usually a large number of data is generated. The challenging part is then to present the data in a structured and condensed


Exploratory and Confirmatory Analyses

Clinical trials often aim to establish two key parameters about a novel treatment or device: They should show that the product is safe and efficacious.

What are descriptive statistics?

Descriptive statistics summarize a sample, for example the group of patients included in a clinical trial. They have to be distinguished from inductive and explorative


What is a parameter or variable?

What do statisticians mean when they talk about parameters or variables? In the frame of a clinical study, a variable is something that can be



It is a widely spread view that biostatisticians should be involved only after data has been collected. But involving a biostatistician already in the planning