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What is a p-value?

P-values show how large the probability is to obtain the observed test results assuming the null hypothesis is correct. Or in other words, how likely


What is a significance test?

A test of significance consists of four steps. First, the null and alternative hypothesis must be stated. Second, the test must be chosen appropriately, and


What are one-sided and two-sided tests?

When applying a statistical test, there are always two hypotheses as a basis. The null hypothesis describes the non-favorable scenario, where the investigational product would


What is a confidence interval?

When it is about the precision of a test result, confidence intervals are a more useful measure than p-values, which only reflect the statistical significance. Confidence intervals provide additional information about how large the effect could be, so answering the question how the clinical relevance for the finding is.


What is an estimator?

An example for a point estimator is the arithmetic mean when trying to find the mean of a population. A point estimator is used to